Whether Euthanasia Can Ever Be Ethical Essay

Whether Euthanasia Can Ever Be Ethical


Euthanasia is basically a legal term that refers to a medically aided mercy killing. It will be recognized that in most countries euthanasia is assumed to be illegal. This raises two basic questions of whether euthanasia is unethical or ethical. In order to answer the two broad questions we need to understand the types of euthanasia. The first type of euthanasia is the patient’s voluntary decision. This occurs when the patient inquires the doctor to terminate his or her life as soon as the patient suffers dearly. In this type of euthanasia the patient is assumed to loose the hope for a civilized quality life and recovery and further wishes to transfer the psychological and financial burden to his or her family (Keown, 2002).

The issues associated with this type of euthanasia extend to include questionable mental competency and the social pressure which extensively affects the decision of the patient. It generally agreed that if a patient is proved to be mentally competent then the government should not disagree or question the euthanasia decision of the person. Several religions do not accept suicide and nearly everyone considers euthanasia as a type of suicide. The other type of euthanasia is the involuntary decision by the patient’s family and friends where they plan to terminate his or her life and is commonly regarded as euthanasia with no patient’s consent. It will be realized that this type of euthanasia is extremely complicated as the family members or friends may fail to agree on ending the life of the patient. Euthanasia is termed to be illegal to many countries and there seems to be no laws and policies explaining the party responsible for the final euthanasia decision. Based on the above definitions, euthanasia can never be ethical.

It will be realized that the central ethical and legal issue that revolves around euthanasia is concerned with the ownership of life. It extends to address whether human beings can control and own their lives and if they have the right to take it away under any conditions. According to the religion, it is generally accepted that life belongs to God therefore He is the one who gives and takes it away. This implies that no human being who can actually give or take away life. It will be noted that those who tried to control human life particularly in the Qur’an were severely condemned (Phil, n.d.). The death moment is usually under the control of God and thus no human being has a say on this issue. No one should try to delay or hasten the death of another person. The prohibition of life essentially applies uniformly whether for genocide, homicide or suicide. The concept of individual choice and freedom does not actually apply in this perspective for the reason that life doesn’t belong to human beings and that taking life away generally causes harm both to the society and family. This clearly implies that the freedom of choice vested on the people is basically constrained by the harm that it truly passes to others.

Studies reveal that extend to which many patients have the right to discontinue or refuse treatment has become a disputed question allover the world. It will be documented that patients who have legal competence should make final decisions regarding their nutritional support and medical treatment. It is required that the patients should be fed according to their wishes and only forced when there arises an instantaneous threat to life. The legal competence conditions extend to include mind soundness, adulthood, freedom from compulsion or duress and a comprehensive understanding regarding the legal and medical issues involved. Based on the definition of death then euthanasia can be termed as being not ethical (Jecker, Jonsen & Pearlman, 2007).  According to the traditional definition, death is meant to refer to cardio-respiratory arrest. Death can also be defined as higher brain or whole brain death. It is agreed that if the patient happens to have a higher brain death then the life support should be withdrawn on the fact that he or she is dead (Kasule, n.d.).   In regard to the traditional definition of death life support can not be removed at any stage of the patient’s illness.

Although euthanasia is assumed to be the most loving and kindest thing since the patient’s desire is respected and that people are fairly entitled to a dignified and pain free death, arguments against euthanasia hit the whole atmosphere. Killing in all conditions is presumed to be wrong and that God gave us a gift of life and we don’t have the right to take it away. Euthanasia also faces both secular and religious objections. Religious opponents disagree for the reason that they consider that God is the only one with the right to consider when a person should die. Secular opponents on the other hand argue that rights are subject to our obligations. We must put into account our obligations towards the society and therefore balance our rights to die as individuals against the consequences directed to the society as whole.

Right to life clearly entitles a person to maximally enjoy the right of not to be killed in case they are not willing. The people in favor of euthanasia will automatically claim that this right is basically meant to prevent the misuse of euthanasia because when a doctor takes life of a patient who is not willing to die violates the rights of the patient (BBC – Ethics). This undoubtedly implies that euthanasia is unethical as it infringes the right to life and should be banned. In conclusion, euthanasia is never ethical and doctors have no right to interfere with the death of the patient as it is fixed by God and therefore disease should be allowed to take its natural route until death. Patients should therefore continue to obtain life support such as provision of good nutrition and medical care and an establishment of public policy regarding life support is very crucial. The policy should be administered clearly and applied to all patients with no regard to race, gender, diagnosis or age.

Work cited

BBC – Ethics – Euthanasia: Pro-euthanasia arguments. (n.d.). BBC Homepage. Retrieved July 17, 2013, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/euthanasia/infavour/infavour_1.shtml#top

Jecker, N. A., Jonsen, A. R., & Pearlman, R. A. (2007). Bioethics: an introduction to the history, methods, and practice (2nd. ed.). Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Kasule, P. H. (n.d.). Euthanasia: Ethic-Legal Issues. Mission Islam. Retrieved July 17, 2013, from http://www.missionislam.com/health/euthanasia.htm

Keown, J. (2002). Euthanasia, ethics, and public policy an argument against legalisation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Homework Help Press.

Phil, B. (n.d.). Is Euthanasia Ethical? « Phil for Humanity. Phil for Humanity. Retrieved July 17, 2013, from http://www.philforhumanity.com/Is_Euthanasia_Ethical.html




Introduction to American Studies


Introduction to American Studies

Southwest Questions

  1. How did the dream of a railroad that never came to be permanently shape the American Southwest?
The Southwestern region in U.S. covers states including: Utah, Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Nevada, Colorado, California, and Arizona and its population is estimated at 19 million people. The first people rumored to have inhabited the South West region are the Puebloan people and they were the original residents of what nowadays is the Arizonian Old Oraibi, New Mexico’s village of Acoma, and Walpi’s Hopi villages. These inhabitants are recorded to live in such villages from the 1100s but new arrivals started trickling in by 14th century and some of these new tribes included the Utes, Apache, and Navajo. The arrival of Spanish and Anglo-Americans seemingly brought immense variations to the Pueblo and Hopi tribes/Indian cultures. The Spanish conquered the South West region in early 16th century and they took up humiliating the Indians by treating them poorly and even went further to destroy the natives’ culture through demolishing ceremonial and religious objects. The result was the Pueblo revolt in 1680 which saw the oust of the Spanish from New Mexico even though they reclaimed the region again in 1692 and by 1800s Anglo-Americans started voyaging into the region.

The new immigrants who entered the South West region had massive impact in that the Spanish brought new culture and Spaniards’ customs which since then have shaped the native culture of the region. The construction of St. Louis Southwestern Railway opened the entire cotton belt and enhanced trade within and without the region.

  1. You are a small-time Mexican American rancher in the Southwest. You like to let your cattle graze freely, but they and you are constantly under attack from hostile Native Americans. Where do you most likely live, and what do you do to defend against Indian attacks?

Similarly, there are 3 dominant cultures in the region which emerged around 100 AD and they include: the Northern Plateaus’ Ancestral Puebloans, The Central Mountains’ Mogollon and the Desert Hohokam. By 15th century majority of the tribes had disappeared but present majority of Native American tribes allege to be descendent from the three ancient cultures. The Southwest region is culturally varied, with noteworthy Hispanic American and Anglo American populations along with more regional Native American, Asian American, and African American populations. I live in Baldy town in New Mexico and always under constant attack by the Native Americans and therefore I would use the State law enforcing authorities to safeguard and defend my grazing rights in the event of attacks.

  1. You are moseying down a typical Mexican American neighborhood in the Southwest. Describe what you see.

The Mexican Americans living in the South West region still value their cultural practices and therefore I came across them wearing their traditional clothing. Men were dressed in tailored pants and jackets which were lined with shiny metal/silver buttons and also wore as charros in broad-brimmed sombreros. On the other hand, the women were dressed in china poblana clothes, which were composed of sparkling red skirt decorated with shiny flecks of divergent colors and white peasant top.


  1. This question requires cross-lesson thinking. You’ve read and heard many different types of American regional music. In this lesson, you studied Western Swing Music. Compare and contrast Western Swing Music with one or more other types of American regional music.

Western swing music basically refers to an American subgenre of country music which emerged in the South and West around the 1920s. The music is type of a dance composition which apparently has an up-rhythm beat and it was a mixture of blues, Dixieland jazz, folk, polka, cowboy, rural all mixed with swing and it was play via a hot cord band that regularly augmented it with the steel guitar, pianos, saxophones, and drums. The stringed instruments were electrically amplified and gave the music a characteristic sound. On the other hand, the bluegrass music is generally a type of American roots music which lies in the music genre called country music and was stirred by the Appalachian music. This type of music has varied roots around English, Irish, welsh, Scottish and African-Americans via the integration of jazz fundamentals.  It is a string band music composed of 4 to 7 performers accompanied by sound string instruments like the Dobro, string bass, steel guitar, mandolin, five string banjo, fiddle, double bass, and guitar. The vocal accord features 2, 3, or 4 parts regularly with a modal or dissonant resonance having the peak voice. The tunes of bluegrass music are mostly narratives surrounding daily people lives.


  1. You can’t eat a cook-off. Regardless, how are the Texas chili cook-off and other similar regional cook-offs important parts of regional food culture?

The Texas chili cook-off is a cultural event in Texas whereby numerous competitors prepare specific recipe for the chili con carne delicacy and present it for savor testing. This event is quite important as it shows to the world the regional food culture of the region and this helps in giving the people a sense of identity within their community.


Mormon Culture Region

  1. The Mormon Culture Region is unique because it is made of a group that formed through religious ties rather than ethnic background or physical proximity. Describe the Mormon Culture Region and some of its distinctive characteristics.

Mormonism is a principal religious practice by the Latter Day Saint movement and it shares common beliefs with the LDS. LDS believe that education is amongst the most vital aspects of life while on earth and it is preserved in the subsequent life. The Church completely distances itself from politics and common cuisines include: fry sauce, Apple Beer, jello salad, and funeral potatoes. The most common visual symbol of the LDS Church is a statue showing the Angel Moroni trumpeting and the epistles CTR which means “Choose the Right” shown in a guard logo. Moreover, the Mormon culture of religion has several unique hymns and songs including: We Thank Thee, O God, for a Prophet”, “O My Father”, “Praise to the Man”, “I Am a Child of God” and Come, Come, Ye Saints”.

  1. Why were Danish immigrants overshadowed as an ethnic group? Explain some of their contributions to the Mormon Culture Region.

Danish immigrants were greatly overshadowed as an ethnic group in America since once in the country they spread comparatively into the famous melting pot and apparently they were least unified and therefore lost their awareness of their culture and origins. Their tendency to intermarry with non-Danes and usage of English amongst them wore off their cultural background and this made them become overshadowed. The Danish culture is rich in folklore and fine arts and these aspects influenced the Mormon culture religion in terms of music composing, painting, architecture, and sculpture in that the church adapted music, dancing and folk tales in their religion. Church architecture and symbols such as the Angel Moroni were also adapted from the Danish culture.

  1. Choose one type of material culture from the west that we studied. Interpret it as a reflection of the attitudes and values of the people that made it.

Latino/Hispanic Americans have their origin either from Latin America or Spain. The Hispanics are Venezuelan, Colombian, Puerto Rican, or Mexicans and many of them speak 2 languages, Spanish and English. The Latino have strong family values in that their family unit always covers also the extended one. The father is usually the head of the whole family while mothers have responsibility to take care of the home. They also observe etiquette and give immense importance to great value in appearance and looks as a sense of pride, dignity, and honor.


  1. Compare and contrast the development of Utah and Nevada. Does this indicate that the physical environment does or does not shape a group’s culture? Explain your reasoning.

The region of Utah is composed of mountain valleys, pine forests and arid deserts and was inhabited by the LDS Church in the late 18th and this has seen it grow into a homogenous state with respect to religion whereby recent approximates show that about 63% of the State’s population is Mormons. This has influenced the general Utah culture of the region towards the Mormon Culture. While on the other hand Nevada region is majorly semiarid and desert and its inhabited by the Latinos and Hispanics. The culture is more Hispanic and the paramount denomination is Roman Catholic. Since the two regions were in one time together but separated having different cultural preferences but this doesn’t mean that physical environment does shape a group’s culture. There are other aspects which influence culture including: religion, music, values, music, language, and architecture.

  1. How is the Las Vegas buffet a unique regional foodway? How does it different from other regional foodways? How is it a reflection of American and Las Vegas culture?

Las Vegas buffet shows the unique culinary culture of the city since the history of buffet which dates back to 1940s when Beldon Katleman took the attitude of treating his guests to an array of foodstuffs. Soon it became a trend in the city as all casinos adopted buffet and this has made the Las Vegas buffet earn a slot in the city’s history of unique foodway. It is quite different to other regional foodways as it is not inclined to any major known regional culture but other regional foodways like the barbecue has a predominant cultural importance deeply rooted in social and festival rituals.

Source: Wikipedia.org, AceMyHW.com, Google.com

GEO Test

Name ______________________________

Chapter 8


1.  To what extent did geography encourage Greeks to venture into the Mediterranean Sea?

Greece is located in southeastern Europe. Its peninsula extends from the Balkans all the way to the Mediterranean Sea. Greece is a mountainous country and most of her land is rocky. Mountains cover roughly 70 t0 80 percent of Greece. Due to these factors, there was very little land for agriculture. The food produced by this small cultivated land was not enough to feed the entire population of the Greek people and there for there was need to look for other means of living. Being surrounded by the sea they ventured into it. They started trading with other countries. Greek had a number of bays along it shoreline hence encouraged trading very much. The country had skilled sailors who were able to sail to other countries and exchange olive, oil, wine and marble for grains, metal and ideas. Due to poor land for agriculture most of the Greeks turned into fishing as a source of food and income which nourished in the sea.


2.  In what ways did the colonies serve as links between Greece and the larger Mediterranean region?

Greek colonies arose in the eastern Mediterranean and the black sea. Many Greeks projected into the Black Sea building colonies all along its shores. The colonies made it easier for merchants to access rich supplies of grains, fish, furs, timber, honey, wax, gold and amber. The colonies also received slaves from other parts of the sea and took them into markets both in Greece and to Aegean Sea and Anatolia. Establishment of Greek colonies in other parts of the Mediterranean Sea created links to Greece as those colonies captured slave and transported them to Greece to work there.

3.  How does Socrates’ understanding of personal morality and its rewards compare and contrast with the Zoroastrian, Buddhist, and Hindu views discussed in earlier chapters?  Explain in detail.

All these religions believe that one’s behavior leads to one’s prosperity or failure for example the Hindu believe in four purposes for living and one of them is prosperity. The Socrates also as the Hindu insisted on the need to reflect on the purpose of living and life’s achievements. These religions also taught on the need to be honest and just to others. The Socrates ague that human beings are capable of leading honest lives, on the same point of honesty the Buddha believe that if a merchant stays honest to his/her customers then he will also receive honest customers.

Both believe that fortune of one’s life depends on the persons conduct. If a person practices good moral, the god will reward the person with good. They all associated suffering as a punishment for bad morals. The Buddha trusts that all sorts of suffering are caused by ignorance of reality and worldly attachments. The same the Socrates believe that if one does not work towards a just society then the consequences will be suffering. Similarly the Zoroastrian attribute suffering, happiness and grief to ones moral behavior.

On the contrary, for the Socrates honor was much more important than riches, fame and other superficial attributes such as kingships while all these other religions believed that leaders were always honorable. The Socrates agued that humans had an obligation to work had for integrity but the others knew that integrity came from their gods.


4.  In what ways did Roman expansion encourage interactions and exchanges throughout the Mediterranean region?

Roman dominated the entire Mediterranean basin after defeating the Carthage colony. The Romans then spread eastwards taking Greece. The interactions between the Romans and Greek people led to exchange of culture. The coastal trading cultures were spread into inland river valleys thus encouraged further interactions among the Romans and the Mediterranean people. The Italians then dominated trade from the east to Europe and used mediation, which influenced interactions and good exchange of both goods and culture. The Romans facilitated trade across Mesopotamian region, Egypt, Phoenicia, Greek and Macedonia. The Romans also constructed roads and canals that further improved interactions around the Mediterranean region.

5.  How important was the Romans’ extensive road network for the maintenance of their enormous empire?

The extensive network of roads helped the Roman to maintain their territories using strong military that was on sight all the time. The roads made it easier for the soldiers to move even to marginalized territories with ease much faster thus ensured maximum security was maintained. Firm paved roads minimized the stress of impassable roads during the wet season. Road linked their numerous empires together thus when there was an alarm from of an attack on one of their empires, it was easier and faster to release military from other camps to go and provide support thus made it had for their enemies to attack them.

The network of roads facilitated trade within and across the empire thus the government was able to obtain tax from the traders that they used to manage the empires. These roads also made it easier and faster for couriers to deliver the emperor’s message to the sub-branches. There were also post houses located ten to fifteen miles apart where the military changed horses.

GEO 101

Name ______________________________

Chapter 2


  1. What geographical conditions favored the establishment of large states north of the first cataract of the Nile River?

Climatic change: A long-term climatic change was experienced in Northern Africa after 5000 B.C.E. This aspect of climatic change greatly affected the agriculture production in the area. The climatic conditions of the area became hotter and drier thus forcing people to migrate to wet places. The Sahara desert was earlier on wet and favorable for agricultural production but due to the climatic change it became increasingly arid and infertile thus forced the agricultural communities to move to other places hence leaving behind large states unoccupied.

The Nile River Valley: The Nile River flooded annually breaking it banks up to the valley plains. The river carried along with it fertile alluvial soil which were deposited at the plains and when the waters receded, people cultivated the land and planted food crops. This factor caused people to accumulate at the river valley leaving the main land bare.


  1. How does Harkhuf’s autobiography illuminate early Egyptian interest in Nubia and the processes by which Egyptians of the Old Kingdom developed knowledge about Nubia?

Harkhuf in his autobiography describes four expeditions into Nubia. First he writes that Pharaoh his lord sent him together with his father to Nubia to open the way to that country and when he came back he brought many gifts from there. He went a second time and again came back with gifts, the third time he came back with three hundred donkeys carrying a lot of presents and lastly was the letter from Pharaoh which confirmed that indeed Harkhuf had been to Nubia and had brought with him a pygmy of the god’s dances from Nubia.

These expeditions made the Egyptians to undertake several other expeditions to Nubia land to also bring gifts. It made Egyptians to believe that Nubia was a blessed land hence there was need for them to invade it and even take it from the Nubian people. However the several expeditions to Nubia were unsuccessful since the Nubians had strong resistance forces. Through the expeditions Egyptians gained knowledge on farming, military and construction of cities.



3        Why was the New Kingdom able to expand so dramatically to the north and south?  Why did it not expand to the east and west also?

The pharaohs of the new kingdom worked had to expand their territories to the south because they needed to rule over the Nile valley, which had very fertile agricultural land. The Pharaohs expanded their territories to the north because they had already chased out the Hyksos and there for they needed to secure the northern territories against new invaders. The new kingdom never expanded their borders to the eastern parts because of the existence of the red sea while to the west there were unfavorable climatic conditions for cultivation.


4.  Why is the figure in front trying to gauge the water’s depth?  (see page 38)

No figure sent


5.  To what extent do technological considerations help to explain the extent of the Bantu migrations?  Why did Bantu-speaking peoples not migrate also to the north and west of their homeland?

By 3000 B.C.E. the Bantu people were slowly occupying the south region into the West African forest. By around 2000 B.C.E. they had vastly spread to the south towards the Congo River basin and towards the Great Lakes in east Arica. Technologically the Bantu people used canoes to navigate through the Niger and Congo rivers. The canoes helped them to rapidly spread along the southern and eastern Africa Rivers. The development of agriculture among the Bantu people led to demographic growth and thus need for migration in search of more space and land for cultivation.

After about 1000B.C.E. the Bantu people began to manufacture iron tools and weapons. The weapons enabled them to expand their territories and chase away their enemies. The iron tools that they produced helped them to clear forests and cultivate easily than before hence this iron technology influenced the Bantus’ migration.

Some of the reasons why the Bantu people never migrated to the west and north are; Bantu people moved along rivers and most rivers from their origin such as the Congo and Niger rivers were flowing towards the south and to the east towards the Great Lakes. Bantu people were also farmers and therefore moved in search of fertile agricultural land. This reason hindered them from moving northwards since the region was dry (the Sahara desert) thus it was not efficient for agriculture. The Sudanic groups who were herders had also established strong territories along the northern savannah plains therefore made it difficult for Bantus to move to the north.


Ethical Dilemmas, Geography